# palavras | estoicismo

Provavelmente, em 2018 devia desenvolver mais sentido estóico.

Stoicism is known as a eudaimonistic theory, which means that the culmination of human endeavor or ‘end’ (telos) is eudaimonia, meaning very roughly “happiness” or “flourishing.” The Stoics defined this end as “living in agreement with nature.” “Nature” is a complex and multivalent concept for the Stoics, and so their definition of the goal or final end of human striving is very rich.

The first sense of the definition is living in accordance with nature as a whole, i.e. the entire cosmos. (…)

Once a human being has developed reason, his function is to perform “appropriate acts” or “proper functions.” The Stoics defined an appropriate act as “that which reason persuades one to do” or “that which when done admits of reasonable justification.” Maintaining one’s health is given as an example. Since health is neither good nor bad in itself, but rather is capable of being used well or badly, opting to maintain one’s health by, say, walking, must harmonize with all other actions the agent performs. Similarly, sacrificing one’s property is an example of an act that is only appropriate under certain circumstances. The performance of appropriate acts is only a necessary and not a sufficient condition of virtuous action. This is because the agent must have the correct understanding of the actions he performs.(…)

The virtuous person is not passionless in the sense of being unfeeling like a statue. Rather, he mindfully distinguishes what makes a difference to his happiness—virtue and vice—from what does not. This firm and consistent understanding keeps the ups and downs of his life from spinning into the psychic disturbances or “pathologies” the Stoics understood passions to be.

Stoic Ethics, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


1. Acknowledge that all emotions come from within

“Today I escaped anxiety. Or no, I discarded it, because it was within me, in my own perceptions — not outside.” — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

2. Find someone you respect and use them to stay honest

“Choose someone whose way of life as well as words, and whose very face as mirroring the character that lies behind it, have won your approval. Be always pointing him out to yourself either as your guardian or as your model. This is a need, in my view, for someone as a standard against which our characters can measure themselves. Without a ruler to do it against you won’t make the crooked straight.” — Seneca, Letters From a Stoic

3. Recognize there is life after failure 

Does what’s happened to keep you from acting with justice, generosity, self-control, sanity, prudence, honesty, humility, straightforwardness, and all other qualities that allow a person’s nature to fulfill itself? So remember this principle when something threatens to cause you pain: the thing itself was no misfortune at all; to endure it and prevail is great good fortune.” — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

Don’t just say you have read books. Show that through them you have learned to think better, to be a more discriminating and reflective person. Books are the training weights of the mind. They are very helpful, but it would be a bad mistake to suppose that one has made progress simply by having internalized their contents.” — Epictetus, The Art of Living

5. Challenge yourself to be brutally honest

“‘A consciousness of wrongdoing is the first step to salvation.’ This remark of Epicurus’ is to me a very good one. For a person who is not aware that he is doing anything wrong has no desire to be put right. You have to catch yourself doing it before you can reform. Some people boast about their failings: can you imagine someone who counts his faults as merits ever giving thought to their care? So—to the best of your ability—demonstrate your own guilt, conduct inquiries of your own into all the evidence against yourself. Play the first part of the prosecutor, then of the judge and finally of pleader in mitigation. Be harsh with yourself at times.” — Seneca, Letters From a Stoic

6. Reflect on what you spend the most time on

“A key point to bear in mind: The value of attentiveness varies in proportion to its object. You’re better off not giving the small things more time than they deserve.” — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

7. Remind yourself: you weren’t meant to procrastinate.

“At dawn, when you have trouble getting out of bed, tell yourself: ‘I have to go to work—as a human being. What do I have to complain of, if I’m going to do what I was born for—the things I was brought into the world to do? Or is this what I was created for? To huddle under the blankets and stay warm?

– But it’s nicer here…

So you were born to feel ‘nice’? Instead of doings things and experiencing them? Don’t you see the plants, the birds, the ants and spiders and bees going about their individual tasks, putting the world in order, as best they can? And you’re not willing to do your job as a human being? Why aren’t you running to do what your nature demands? 

—But we have to sleep sometime…

Agreed. But nature set a limit on that—as it did on eating and drinking. And you’re over the limit. You’ve had more than enough of that. But not of working. There you’re still below your quota. You don’t love yourself enough. Or you’d love your nature too, and what it demands of you. People who love what they do wear themselves down doing it, they even forget to wash or eat. Do you have less respect for your own nature than the engraver does for engraving, the dancer for dance, the misery for money or the social climber for status? When they’re really possessed by what they do, they’d rather stop eating and sleeping than give up practicing their arts.” — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

8. Put the phone away and be present

“Nothing, to my way of thinking, is a better proof of a well-ordered mind than a man’s ability to stop just where he is and pass some time in his own company.” — Seneca, Letters From a Stoic

9. Remind yourself that time is our most precious resource

“Not to live as if you had endless years ahead of you. Death overshadows you. While you’re alive and able — be good.” — Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

Mistas, sem tostas

Foi quando andei a gastar o meu precioso tempo entre reuniões e pontos de situação, briefings, brainstormings e recuos, que dei graças ao meu espírito de arquivista, à observação de enfermeira e à memória de controlador aéreo.


Invoco a 1ª Lei de Newton :)


Um corpo tende a ficar parado ou em movimento rectilíneo uniforme, até que uma força aja sobre ele.

Lex I

“Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare”
Cada corpo persevera no seu estado de repouso ou de movimento uniforme em linha, a menos que seja compelido a mudar aquele estado por forças nele imprimidas

Princípio da inércia ou Primeira Lei de Newton.


Magnifico exemplar aqui ou aqui

Curiosidades: G. K. Chesterton


«Quando certa vez perguntaram a Chesterton “que livro gostaria de ter consigo se fosse um náufrago numa ilha deserta”, respondeu com “um manual de construção de barcos”.»

Mas também terá dito: “Isso depende das circunstâncias. Se eu fosse um político que quisesse impressionar os eleitores, escolheria Platão ou Aristóteles. Mas o verdadeiro teste seria com pessoas com quem não tivéssemos de nos exibir, amigos ou constituintes. Nesse caso, estou certo de que toda a gente levaria o Guia Prático de construção de barcos de Thomas para que pudessem fugir da ilha o mais rápidamente possível. E se fossemos autorizados a ter um segundo livro seria a melhor história de detetives ao nosso alcance. Se só pudesse levar um livro para uma ilha deserta e não tivesse pressa em de lá sair, sem a menor hesitação eu colocaria o Pickwick Papers na minha mochila.

G. K. Chesterton escolheu um manual prático para se evadir realmente da ilha deserta. Deixa à nossa imaginação um pensador acima do peso, de mangas arregaçadas, a construir o seu meio de fuga.



G.K. Chesterton and several other literary figures were once asked what book they would prefer to have with them if they were stranded on a desert island.
“The complete works of Shakespeare,” said one writer without hesitation.
“I choose the Bible,” said another.
“How about you?” they asked Chesterton.
“I would choose Thomas’ Guide to Practical Shipbuilding,” replied Chesterton.
Source- Joke Barn

Here, apparently, is the original source of the above anecdote. Cyril Clemens (a relation of Samuel Clemens, i.e., Mark Twain) wrote a book on Chesterton called Chesterton as Seen by His Contemporaries (1939), in the course of which he interviewed Chesterton himself as well (shortly before GKC’s death), in addition to his contemporaries. From that book (p. 131 in my edition):
I then asked the author what would be his choice if he had to go on a desert island and could take but one book along.
“It would depend upon the circumstances,” he replied. “If I were a politician who wanted to impress his constituents, I would take Plato or Aristotle. But the real test would be with people who had no chance to show off before their friends or their constituents. In that case I feel certain that everyone would take Thomas’ ‘Guide to Practical Shipbuilding’ so that they could get away from the island as quickly as possible. And then if they should be allowed to take a second book it would be the most exciting detective story within reach. But if I could take only one book to a desert isle and was not in a particular hurry to get off, I would without the slightest hesitation put ‘Pickwick Papers’ in my handbag.”


» 13. Breviário



Pensar, per si, não altera as coisas nem os valores.

É a faculdade de julgar que faz a diferença, dividindo os particulares sob regras e juntando senso comum e imaginação.

Julgamos e distinguimos o certo do errado não pelo geral, mas atentando ao particular que se torna, para nós, um exemplo.

Diria que a nossa cartografia pessoal de exemplos expressa os juízos que realizamos.