“Study on the gender dimension of trafficking in human beings”

study on the gender

“A Comissão Europeia acaba de publicar o «Estudo Sobre a Dimensão de Género no Tráfico de Seres Humanos», no âmbito da Estratégia da União Europeia para a Erradicação do Tráfico de Seres Humanos 2012-2016. Este estudo enquadra-se na prioridade E da Estratégia, que visa conhecer melhor os novos problemas relacionados com todas as formas de tráfico de seres humanos (TSH) e dar-lhes uma resposta eficaz. Mais concretamente, diz respeito à Ação 2, cujo objetivo é promover o conhecimento sobre a dimensão do género no TSH e sobre os grupos vulneráveis, nomeadamente as especificidades ligadas ao género, que caracterizam a forma como os homens e mulheres são recrutados/as e explorados/as, as consequências em termos de género das diversas formas de tráfico e as potenciais diferenças entre homens e mulheres no que se refere à vulnerabilidade ao tráfico e o seu impacto sobre ambos os géneros.” (site da CIG)

“This report is concerned with practices to reduce and combat trafficking in human beings: service provision, law enforcement, online safeguarding, and prostitution policy change. Statistics can support the evaluation of these practices by evidencing change over time and between different regimes. In order to do so, robust and comparable measures of trafficking in human beings and in prostitution are needed.



Review of key issues in the literature

Victim assistance: United Kingdom example

Measuring trafficking EU-28

Demand reduction: Germany and the Netherlands

Demand reduction: Sweden

Law enforcement: justice and home affairs EU agencies

Emerging cyber technology

Conclusions from gender analysis


Annex: Relevant law and policy instruments


Relatório aqui

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2015 “Trafficking in Human Beings”

Em 2013 o Eurostat publicou o primeiro relatório sobre Trafficking in Human Beings in Europe. Na edição de 2015, o Relatório apresenta dados dos 28 membros da UE e inclui Montenegro, Noruega, Sérvia, Suiça, Turquia e Islândia, bem como comparativos com outros países, com dados dos anos de 2010, 2011 e 2012.

” The totals and percentages in the working paper are based on data from the EU Member States. Where relevant, the number of Member States providing data, and on which the statistics are based, is also given. Data from the non-EU countries have been highlighted separately in some sections. This is a working paper looking at statistical data at EU level as gathered and submitted by national authorities. In this respect, it is a unique undertaking in this field at EU level. The data have been collected from official sources, and provide information on registered victims, suspects, prosecutions and convictions, as recorded by the authorities. As such, this working paper differs from other reports which have looked at estimates of the prevalence of trafficking in human beings, for example. There may also be studies at national or regional level which provide greater detail about a specific subset of the phenomenon or which look at a narrower geographical area. This report should be considered alongside such studies to gain maximum benefit from the full evidence base available.

Since the first working paper, encouraging progress has been achieved in terms of availability of data. This working paper reaffirms the need for further improvement, as more comprehensive and comparable data will allow for a more accurate assessment of the nature of the problem, as well as more accurate conclusions at EU level.
Not all Member States have provided comprehensive data on all indicators. In view of this, and the differences between national definitions and recording systems, figures should be interpreted with caution, and with careful consideration of the methodological notes provided. A higher number of reported cases does not necessarily mean that a country has more victims than another country. Nor is it necessarily an indication of a better identification or recording system. Sudden increases or decreases may merely reflect legislative modifications, changes in statistical procedures and counting rules, or be the result of specific law enforcement initiatives. Careful analysis of the information provided in the country notes is required to allow for a comprehensive understanding of the values reported, and comparisons between Member States should be avoided.” (Executive Summary)
1. Key findings
Registered victims
• 30 146 victims were registered in the 28 EU Member States over the three years 2010-2012.
• 80 % of registered victims were female.
• Over 1 000 child victims were trafficked for sexual exploitation.
• 69 % of registered victims were trafficked for sexual exploitation.
• 95 % of registered victims of sexual exploitation were female.
• 71 % of registered victims of labour exploitation were male.
• 65 % of registered victims were EU citizens.
• There are no discernible trends in the variation of victim data at EU level over the three reference years.
• 8 805 prosecutions for trafficking in human beings were reported by Member States over the three years 2010-2012.
• Over 70 % of traffickers were male. This is the case for suspects, prosecutions and convicted traffickers.
• 3 855 convictions for trafficking in human beings were reported by Member States over the three years.
• There are no discernible trends in the number of prosecutions or convictions at EU level.
EU Member States where authorities report coming into contact with more victims as a proportion of the total population (more than 5 registered victims per 100 000 inhabitants) in each of the three reference years are Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Romania. Countries where authorities report coming into contact with a lower number of victims as a proportion of the total population (less than 1 victim per 100 000 inhabitants) are Croatia, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal, Poland and Slovakia.