Publicado em Direito, Direitos Humanos, Discursos e testemunhos, História

20 novembro – início dos Julgamentos de Nuremberg

A 20 de novembro de 1945 começaram os julgamentos de Nuremberg – oficialmente Tribunal Militar Internacional vs. Hermann Göring et al – que durariam até 1 de outubro de 1946.

(documentos: United States vs Hermann Gohring – ou Trails of War Criminals before Nuernberg…” – International Military Tribunal  at Nuremberg)

Chamaram-lhe “o maior processo da História”. No banco dos réus estavam 22 responsáveis do nazismo. Mas sobretudo o próprio nazismo, expressão suprema da barbárie europeia do século XX. Foi um acto de “justiça dos vencedores”, feito em nome da humanidade. (f. fonte)

A corte era formada por 8 membros – da França, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e União Soviética. Ao fim de onze meses, quando as sessões foram encerradas, tinha havido 403 sessões públicas, mais de cem testemunhas ouvidas, milhares de documentos entre textos, fotos e filmes examinados.

A Corte de Nuremberg foi composta por oito membros, quatro titulares e quatro suplentes. Entre os titulares estavam: Geoffrey Lawrence (Reino Unido), Francis Biddle (Estados Unidos), Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (França) e Iona Nikitchenko (União Soviética). Os suplentes eram: Norman Birkett (União Soviética), John Parker (Estados Unidos), Robert Falco (França), Alexander Volchkov (União Soviética). Quanto aos advogados, constavam os seguintes titulares: Robert H. Jackson (Estados Unidos), Hartley Shawcross (Reino Unido), François de Menthon (França), Auguste Champetier (França) e Roman Rudenko (União Soviética).

Os acusados foram divididos em quatro grupos: os comandantes militares, os fiéis ao partido, os funcionários públicos e os encarregados do extermínio de prisioneiros de guerra, de prisioneiros civis, de judeus e outros povos.

Três proeminente figuras do regime tinham cometido suicídio antes do final da guerra: o Führer Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler (Comandante Militar da SS) e Joseph Goebbles (ministro da Propaganda do Reich). O detentor do posto mais elevado no Tribunal era Hermann Goering (comandante da Força Aérea Alemã, Luftwaffe). Foram acusados 24 mas apenas 21 foram presentes a tribunal.

Foram pronunciadas 12 sentenças de morte, 7 penas de prisão (3 perpétuas, 2 a 20 anos, 1 a 15 anos e 1 a 10 anos) e 3 absolvições. Entre os 12 condenados à morte estavam Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hans Frank, Alfred Rosenberg e Julius Streicher (Bormann foi condenado à revelia).

Foram enforcados na madrugada de 16 de outubro de 1945, cremados em Dachau, e as cinzas espalhadas no rio Isar. Hermann Goering escapou da forca cometendo suicídio na noite anterior, apesar de cada cela ter um guarda à porta para evitar suicídio.

Nuremberg marcou “um alargamento da consciência colectiva da Humanidade”, tal como revelou a dimensão do extermínio praticado pelo regime nazi. Ainda que não esteja isento de polémica.

(Diário de Lisboa, 20 novembro 1945)

Diário de Lisboa, 1 outubro 1946

Publicado em Discursos e testemunhos

Billboard Women in Music 2016 – o discurso de Madonna

A 9 de dezembro, Madonna fez um discurso, acerca do qual primeiramente ouvi comentários e excertos.
Por razões diversas, só agora o ouvi inteiro – e vale a pena ouvir inteiro, no testemunho poderoso de Madonna, que completou a 16 de Agosto, 58 anos (os negritos são meus).

Thank you for acknowledging my ability to continue my career for 34 years in the face of blatant misogyny, sexism, constant bullying and relentless abuse. When I started, there was no Internet. So people have to say it to my face.  There were very few people I had to “clap back at” because life was simpler then.

When I first move to New York, I was a teenager.  It was 1979 and New York was a very scary place. In the first year I was held at gunpoint, raped on a rooftop with a knife digging into my throat and I had my apartment broken into and robbed so many times I just stopped locking the door.

In the years that followed, I lost almost every friend I had to AIDS or drugs or gunshot. As you can imagine, all these unexpected events not only helped me become the daring woman that stands before you. But it also reminded me that I am vulnerable. And in life, there is no real safety except self-belief. And, an understanding that I am not the owner of my talents. I’m not the owner of anything. Everything I have is a gift from God. And even the shitty, fucked-up things that happened to me, that still happen to me, are also gifts, to teach me lessons and make me stronger.

I’m receiving a award of women of the year  and I ask myself what can I say about being women in music business? what can I say about being a women?

When I first start writing songs I didn’t think in gender specific way. I wasn’t think about feminist. I just wanna be an artist. I was of course inspired by Debbie Harry and Chrissie Hynde and Aretha Franklin, but my real muse was David Bowie. He embodied male and female spirit and that suited me just fine. He made me think there were no rules.

But I was wrong. There are no rules — if you’re a boy. If you’re a girl, you have to play the game. What is that game? You are allowed to be pretty and cute and sexy. But don’t act too smart. Don’t have an opinion. Don’t have an opinion that is out of line with the status quo, at least. You are allowed to be objectified by men and dress like a slut, but don’t own your sluttiness. And do not, I repeat, do not, share your own sexual fantasies with the world.Be what men want you to be, but more importantly, be what women feel comfortable with you being around other men.

And finally, do not age. Because to age is a sin. You will be criticized – you will be vilified and you will definitely not be played on the radio.

When I first became famous there were nude photos of me in Playboy and Penthouse magazine. Photos that were taken from art schools that I posed for back in the day to make money. They weren’t very sexy. In fact, I looked quite bored.I was… but I was expected to be shame when this photos came out. But I was not. And this puzzled people…

Eventually I was left alone because I married Sean Penn, and not only would he would bust a cap in your ass, but I was taking off the market. So, for a while I was not considered a threat. Years later, divorced and single — sorry Sean — I made my Erotica album and my Sex book was released. I remember being the headline of every newspaper and magazine. And everything I read about myself was damning. I was called a whore and a witch. One headline compared me to Satan. I said, ‘Wait a minute, isn’t Prince running around with fishnets and high heels and lipstick with his butt hanging out?’ Yes, he was. But he was a man.

This was the first time I truly understood women do not have the same freedom as men. I remember feeling paralyzed. It took me a while to pull myself together and get on with my creative life — to get on with my life.

I took comfort in the poetry of Maya Angelou, and the writings of James Baldwin, and in the music of Nina Simone. I remember wishing I had a female peer I could look to for support. Camille Paglia, the famous feminist writer, said I set women back by objectifying myself sexually. So I thought, ‘oh, if you’re a feminist, you don’t have sexuality, you deny it.’ So I said ‘fuck it. I’m a different kind of feminist. I’m a bad feminist.’

People say that I’m controversial. But I think the most controversial thing I have ever done is to stick around.

What I would like to say to all women here today is this: Women have been so oppressed for so long they believe what men have to say about them.  And they believe they have to back a man to get the job done. And there are some very good men worth backing, but not because they’re men — because they’re worthy.

As women, we have to start appreciating our own worth and each other’s worth. Seek out strong women to befriend, to align yourself with, to learn from, to collaborate with, to be inspired by, to support, to be enlightened by.

As I said before, it’s not so much about receiving this award as it is having this opportunity to stand before you and say thank you. As a women, as an artist, as a human… Not only to the people who have loved and supported me along the way, so many of you are sitting in front of me right now,  you have no idea…you have no idea how much your support means.

But to the doubters and naysayers and everyone who gave me hell and said I could not, that I would not or I must not — your resistance made me stronger, made me push harder, made me the fighter that I am today. Made me the woman that I am today. So thank you.”