“Uma cidade para todos” no Dia Internacional dos Migrantes


A 18 de Dezembro celebra-se o Dia Internacional dos Migrantes, data proclamada em 4 de Dezembro de 2000 pela Assembleia-Geral das Nações Unidas, ante o aumento dos fluxos migratórios no mundo, proclamou o Dia Internacional dos Migrantes (resolução 55/93).

Há vinte e dois anos atrás, a Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas adoptou a Convenção Internacional para a Protecção dos Direitos de todos os Trabalhadores Migrantes e dos Membros das suas Famílias – um acontecimento importante, quer para as pessoas que se movem voluntariamente em busca de melhores oportunidades economias e de diferentes estilos de vida, quer para aqueles que são obrigados a deslocar-se devido aos conflitos, violência, catástrofes, alterações climáticas e, de forma crescente, necessidades económicas. Reconhecendo esta realidade, o dia 18 de Dezembro foi designado Dia Internacional dos Migrantes. Na sua mensagem oficial deste ano, o Secretário-Geral, Ban Ki-moon, afirma que “a nível global, há mais de 214 milhões de pessoas em movimento. Muitos fogem de condições difíceis e são obrigados a enfrentar lutas ainda mais duras, incluindo violações dos direitos humanos, pobreza e discriminação.” O Secretário-Geral enfatiza a importância e o alcance mundial da questão migratória, e refere que no próximo ano “a Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas irá acolher o Segundo Diálogo de Alto Nível sobre Migração Internacional e Desenvolvimento, dando aos Estados Membros e aos seus parceiros a oportunidade de discutir medidas práticas para facilitar a mobilidade laboral, promover o desenvolvimento sustentável e proteger os direitos dos migrantes, especialmente das mulheres e crianças.”


Efeméride do dia de hoje


A primeira expedição a atingir o Polo Sul foi liderada pelo explorador norueguês Roald Amundsen que, com mais quatro membros da expedição, chegaram ao Polo a 14 de Dezembro de 1911.

Algumas fontes apontam a data de 15 de Dezembro. Dado que os dois hemisférios, ocidental e oriental, estão unidos no Polo Sul, ambas as datas podem ser consideradas como correctas, embora Amundsen tenha registado o 14 de Dezembro, tanto na sua mensagem por telegrafo à chegada a Hobart, como no seu relatório completo. (Amundsen, The South Pole; Huntford, The Last Place on Earth’)

“I may say that this is the greatest factor: the way in which the expedition is equipped, the way in which every difficulty is foreseen, and precautions taken for meeting or avoiding it. Victory awaits him who has everything in order, luck, people call it. Defeat is certain for him who has neglected to take the necessary precautions in time, this is called bad luck.”
Roald Amundsen

“Where imaginary mole hills turn into hallucinatory mountains”
Roland Huntford, The Last Place on Earth: Scott and Amundsen’s Race to the South Pole

“Men, as Amundsen liked to say, are the unknown factor in the Antarctic.”
Roland Huntford, Scott and Amundsen: The Last Place on Earth

The Last Place on Earth , além dos livros, foi título de uma mini-série (1985).

1º de dezembro

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A primeira comemoração oficial da Restauração da Independência de 1640 foi em 1823, no recinto do Picadeiro Real do Palácio de Belém. O dia 1 de Dezembro é feriado desde a segunda metade do século XIX, sendo o feriado civil mais antigo, tendo sobrevivido à Primeira República, ao Estado Novo e à democracia.  Curiosamente, foi a única celebração civil que os republicanos mantiveram, depois da revolução de 1910.

Esteve suspenso entre 2012 e 2015, regressando este ano ao calendário…

[Fotos do Obelisco comemorativo da restauração da independência, Restauradores]

Efeméride do dia


A  efeméride googleana do dia 🙂 o nascimento de Louisa May Alcott, autora de “Mulherzinhas”

Who was Louisa May Alcott and what is her famous book Little Women about?

“The book, in which the four women all have unique identities, may seem overly moralistic and formal by today’s standards, but set a mark for female individualism in the 1860s. The women were at the centre of the book and fully formed characters who grappled with their own choices, even within traditional domestic roles.

Fundamentally, though, the book became a classic coming of age title for millions of girls with relatable and interesting characters.”


Dia Mundial da Filosofia

Nas terceiras quintas-feiras de novembro.

Este ano, declarado pela Organização das Nações Unidas como o Ano Internacional de Aristóteles (celebrando 2400 anos…), assinala-se sob o tema

World Philosophy Day 2016

 Message from Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO

This year, we celebrate World Philosophy Day immediately after International Day for Tolerance. This coincidence is deeply significant, given the link between tolerance and philosophy. Philosophy thrives on the understanding of, respect and consideration for the diversity of opinions, thoughts and cultures that enrich the way we live in the world. As with tolerance, philosophy is an art of living together, with due regard to rights and common values. It is the ability to see the world with a critical eye, aware of the viewpoints of others, strengthened by the freedom of thought, conscience and belief.

  … philosophy is more than an academic subject; it is a daily practice that helps people to live in a better, more humane way.  

Irina Bokova
UNESCO Director-General

For all these reasons, philosophy is more than an academic subject; it is a daily practice that helps people to live in a better, more humane way. Philosophical questioning is learned and honed from the youngest age, as an essential key to inspiring public debate and defending humanism, which is suffering the violence and tensions in the world. Philosophy does not offer any ready-to-use solutions, but a perpetual quest to question the world and try to find a place in it. Along this road, tolerance is both a moral virtue and a practical tool for dialogue. It has nothing to do with the naive relativism that claims everything is equally valid; it is an individual imperative to listen, all the more striking because it is founded on a resolute commitment to defend the universal principles of dignity and freedom.

This year, UNESCO celebrates the birthdays of two eminent philosophers, Aristotle and Leibniz, who contributed to the development of metaphysics and science, logic and ethics. Both of them, a few centuries apart and in very different cultural contexts, placed philosophy at the core of public life, as the centrepiece of a free and dignified life. Let us, in turn, celebrate this spirit; let us dare to open spaces for free, open and tolerant thinking. On the basis of this dialogue, we can build stronger cooperation between citizens, societies and States, as a lasting foundation for peace.

Download the message in PDF format

Dia Internacional da Tolerância – 16 November 2016

International Day for Tolerance – 16 November 2016

Message by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO

In a world of diversity, tolerance is a prerequisite for peace. It is also a lever for sustainable development, as it encourages the construction of more inclusive and thus more resilient societies that are able to draw on the ideas, creative energy and talents of each of their members.

Tolerance is often a minority idea and one that is sometimes threatened. In too many countries in the world I have noted the rise of doctrines based on withdrawal and rejection. I have noted that migratory crises, the tragic situation of refugees and armed conflicts are being used as tools to whip up hatred of the other, stigmatize minorities and legitimize discrimination. I have heard the rise in racist attitudes and stereotyping of religions and cultures, as it is said that different peoples cannot live together and that the world would be a better place if we returned to olden times when “pure cultures” lived alone, protected from outside influence, in a mythicized past that has never existed.

We must counter this tendency to isolationism by restoring strength and substance to the culture of tolerance. We must again emphasize the extent to which cultures are enriched by mutual exchange. We must remember the historical facts, recall how peoples and identities have mingled, engendering richer, more complex cultures with multiple identities. Using the living testimony of world heritage sites, we can show that no culture has ever grown in isolation, and that diversity is a strength, not a weakness. We must say again that tolerance is not naive or passive acceptance of difference: it is a fight for the respect of fundamental rights. Tolerance is not relativism or indifference. It is a commitment renewed every day to seek in our diversity the bonds that unite humanity.

 The promotion of the spirit of tolerance is the source and purpose of UNESCO’s actions. It is inspired by the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, adopted in 1995. It draws on many educational, cultural and scientific programmes, in the framework of the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Cultures (2013-2022), the International Coalition of Inclusive and Sustainable Cities, and the promotion of global citizenship education. These programmes need to be supported and relayed by public policies, in official speeches and in daily behaviour, in the media and in the streets of our towns and cities. I call upon all UNESCO’s Member States and all the citizens of the world to take up this message, to build together societies that are more inclusive, more peaceful and more prosperous, because they are more tolerant.