“As greves de 1943 vividas pelas operárias de Almada”

capturar

No presente artigo pretende-se explorar o tema da resistência operária, no feminino e em contexto urbano, numa zona reconhecida histórica e socialmente como de grande concentração de operariado. Assim, e reconhecendo a existência de tais atributos à cidade de Almada, pelo menos desde os finais do século XIX, incidir-se-á a apresentação de dados sobre esta região da margem sul do Tejo. No que diz respeito ao período cronológico em análise, delimitaram-se as décadas de 30 e 40, o que se prende, por um lado, com as próprias conjunturas nacionais, pois o Portugal operário e resistente dos anos em questão não será o mesmo dos anos 50/60 e de todo o período do pós-guerra; e por outro, porque a nível local, como refere Jorge Rodrigues: “Os anos 40 representaram, no concelho de Almada, uma charneira entre dois mundos completamente diferentes: o mundo da industrialização incipiente e o novo mundo da terciarização generalizada.” (Rodrigues, 1999:8).”

!No final, uma coisa é certa: nunca as mulheres operárias tinham tido, durante o Estado Novo, honras de primeira página na imprensa. Seja pela crítica ou pelo incentivo, desta vez, ao contrário de muitas outras, as suas
acções não foram relegadas para o esquecimento da História. Talvez também, porque pela primeira vez o regime as viu agir de forma tão inesperada.”

Ler o artigo aqui

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Solitude of Self, Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1892)

(…)
In discussing the rights of woman, we are to consider, first, what belongs to her as an individual, in a world of her own, the arbiter of her own destiny, an imaginary Robinson Crusoe with her woman Friday on a solitary island. Her rights under such circumstances are to use all her faculties for her own safety and happiness.Secondly, if we consider her as a citizen, as a member of a great nation, she must have the same rights as all other members, according to the fundamental principles of our Government.Thirdly, viewed as a woman, an equal factor in civilization, her rights and duties are still the same-individual happiness and development.Fourthly, it is only the incidental relations of life, such as mother, wife, sister, daughter, that may involve some special duties and training. In the usual discussion in regard to woman’s sphere, such as men as Herbert Spencer, Frederic Harrison, and Grant Allen uniformly subordinate her rights and duties as an individual, as a citizen, as a woman, to the necessities of these incidental relations, some of which a large class of woman may never assume. In discussing the sphere of man we do not decide his rights as an individual, as a citizen, as a man by his duties as a father, a husband, a brother, or a son, relations some of which he may never fill. Moreover he would be better fitted for these very relations and whatever special work he might choose to do to earn his bread by the complete development of all his faculties as an individual.Just so with woman. The education that will fit her to discharge the duties in the largest sphere of human usefulness will best fit her for whatever special work she may be compelled to do.

The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right, to choose his own surroundings.

The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, forces of mind and body; for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear, is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is the chief factor; a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself. No matter how much women prefer to lean, to be protected and supported, nor how much men desire to have them do so, they must make the voyage of life alone, and for safety in an emergency they must know something of the laws of navigation. To guide our own craft, we must be captain, pilot, engineer; with chart and compass to stand at the wheel; to match the wind and waves and know when to take in the sail, and to read the signs in the firmament over all. It matters not whether the solitary voyager is man or woman.

Nature having endowed them equally, leaves them to their own skill and judgment in the hour of danger, and, if not equal to the occasion, alike they perish.

To appreciate the importance of fitting every human soul for independent action, think for a moment of the immeasurable solitude of self. We come into the world alone, unlike all who have gone before us; we leave it alone under circumstances peculiar to ourselves. No mortal ever has been, no mortal over will be like the soul just launched on the sea of life. There can never again be just such environments as make up the infancy, youth and manhood of this one. Nature never repeats herself, and the possibilities of one human soul will never be found in another. No one has ever found two blades of ribbon grass alike, and no one will never find two human beings alike. Seeing, then, what must be the infinite diversity in human, character, we can in a measure appreciate the loss to a nation when any large class of the people in uneducated and unrepresented in the government. We ask for the complete development of every individual, first, for his own benefit and happiness. In fitting out an army we give each soldier his own knapsack, arms, powder, his blanket, cup, knife, fork and spoon. We provide alike for all their individual necessities, then each man bears his own burden.

(…)

Whatever the theories may be of woman’s dependence on man, in the supreme moments of her life he can not bear her burdens. Alone she goes to the gates of death to give life to every man that is born into the world. No one can share her fears, on one mitigate her pangs; and if her sorrow is greater than she can bear, alone she passes beyond the gates into the vast unknown.

The talk of sheltering woman from the fierce sterns of life is the sheerest mockery, for they beat on her from every point of the compass, just as they do on man, and with more fatal results, for he has been trained to protect himself, to resist, to conquer. Such are the facts in human experience, the responsibilities of individual. Rich and poor, intelligent and ignorant, wise and foolish, virtuous and vicious, man and woman, it is ever the same, each soul must depend wholly on itself.
(…)
And yet, there is a solitude, which each and every one of us has always carried with him, more inaccessible than the ice-cold mountains, more profound than the midnight sea; the solitude of self. Our inner being, which we call ourself, no eye nor touch of man or angel has ever pierced.
(…)
Such is individual life. Who, I ask you, can take, dare take, on himself the rights, the duties, the responsibilities of another human soul?LERFoto de Cliff Spohn

Aspasia, first lady of Athens

A bem do rigor, as figuras femininas de relevo na antiguidade, na filosofia ou na política, não são, nem muitas, nem conhecidas.  Aspasia é um exemplo….

“Described as one of the most beautiful and  educated women of her era, Aspasia became the consort of Pericles, leader of democratic Athens. Their relationship caused scandal in the male-dominated world of Classical Athens, not only  because the couple remained unmarried, but because of her determination to be treated as an  equal. Mixing with some the greatest minds of her generation, and at the very center of Athenian political life, Aspasia’s story is unique among the women of her time…”

Aspasia ‘First Lady of Athens’

Aspasia arrived in Athens probably around the middle 440s BC, and soon after achieved instant fame through her association with Pericles, the city’s democratic leader. Divorcing his wife, who he left with two sons, he took up residence with Aspasia setting tongues wagging all over the city.

Still more upsetting for Athenian traditionalists was the great respect their city’s leader showed to his lover. Women were meant to be unseen and unheard, yet Pericles consulted Aspasia as an equal, made no effort to prevent her mixing with important men, and openly showed her great affection.

Independently minded, witty, and with a gifted intellect even the philosopher Socrates acknowledged as being among the best of the city, Aspasia enjoyed a life of constant stimulation and excitement. No doubt with her help and encouragement, Pericles made Athens the greatest city of its day, the very epicenter of learning, art, politics and achievement. Just to walk around it was described as an education in itself.

“It is considered that she died near 400 BC cause the historians argue that she died before Socrates who died in 399 BC. Some historians think that her death must have been  painful that’s why no contemporary author mentions it.

Aspasia was rumoured to be behind of many activities of Pericles. This shows how influential and important personality she was for the Athenian society. Some authors say that she taught Pericles rhetoric and that she prepared some of his famous speeches.Socrates was an admirer of Aspasia and that was proved by some of his advice to people were he is quoting Aspasia and his consultations to people to go and seek advice from her.As an ancient figure it is not unjust that she became equal in fame with the female poet Sappho.”

General and Hellenic History

mulheres de relevo

Homenageada em Abril de 2008, pelo salvamento de crianças durante o Holocausto, Irena Sendlerowa.

Life in a Jar: The Irena Sendler Project

“Em 1999 a história começou a ser conhecida graças a um grupo de alunos de Kansas através de um trabalho de conclusão de curso sobre os Heróis do Holocausto. Na pesquisa encontraram poucas referências sobre Irena com um dado surpreendente: 2.500 vidas foram salvas por ela. Como era possível não existir informação sobre uma pessoa assim? Mas a maior surpresa viria depois. Ao investigarem o local do túmulo de Irena descobriram que nunca existiu porque ela estava viva. Hoje aos 97 anos reside em um asilo em Varsóvia num quarto cercado de flores e cartões de agradecimento de sobreviventes e filhos destes em sua honra.”

Irena Sendlerowa

Story of Irena Sendler

Quando comecei a ler sobre ela, estava viva. Soube que morreu na segunda-feira, dia 12 de Maio, aos 98 anos.

Uma impressionista de relevo

O Impressionismo tem muitos nomes famosos – poucos, são de mulheres. De entre as raridades, Berthe Morisot (1841 – 1895).

Ter ficado em segundo plano pode ter sido influenciado por ser mulher num mundo tradicionalmente de homens. E não estou a exagerar porque, por exemplo, a Escola de Belas Artes só recebeu mulheres em 1897, pelo que antes disso as aspirantes a pintoras tinham de recorrer a tutores ou a academias particulares.

Louvada por Manet e Renoir,Berthe Morisot pintou a sua época nas cenas de vida da mulher burguesa e paisagens transbordantes de frescura, de traços ágeis e quase sempre com a figura humana como ponto de referência.

Galeria de Berthe Morisot

Impressionismo – Berthe Morisot

Berthe Morisot

Outra pintora impressionista que seria injusto não referir é Camille Pissarro (1830-1903). Fica para outro dia…