«Palavra do Ano» – vá lá votar….

A infopédia tem, em votação, as palavras do Ano

São 10, as palavras, cada uma com definição alocada.

É ir lá e votar 🙂

Anúncios

“10 things we learned in 2017” [The Economist]

Download ten things we learned in 2017

e das 10, escolho duas. A 4.

4. Regulating the internet giants
The world’s most valuable resource
A new commodity spawns a lucrative, fast-growing industry, prompting antitrust regulators to step in to restrain those who control its flow. A century ago, the resource in question was oil. Now similar concerns are being raised by the giants
that deal in data, the oil of the digital era. These titans—Alphabet (Google’s parent company), Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Microsoft—look unstoppable. They are the five most valuable listed firms in the world.
Their profits are surging: they collectively racked up over $25bn in net profit in the first quarter of 2017.
Amazon captures half of all dollars spent online in America. Google and Facebook accounted for almost all the
revenue growth in digital advertising in America last year.
Such dominance has prompted calls for the tech giants to be broken up, as Standard Oil was in the early 20th century. This newspaper has argued against such drastic action in the past. Size alone is not a crime. The giants’ success has benefited consumers.
Few want to live without Google’s search engine, Amazon’s one-day delivery or Face-book’s newsfeed. Nor do these firms raise the alarm when standard antitrust tests are applied. Far from gouging consumers, many of their services are free (users pay, in effect, by handing over yet more data). Take account of offline rivals, and their market shares look less worrying. And the emergence of upstarts like Snapchat suggests that new entrants can still make waves. But there is cause for concern. Internet companies’ control of data gives them enormous power. Old ways of thinking about competition, devised in the era of oil, look outdated in what has come to be called the “data economy” (see Briefing). A new approach is needed.
Quantity has a quality all its own
What has changed? Smartphones and the internet have made data abundant, ubiquitous and far more valuable. Whether you are going for a run, watching tv or even just sitting in traffic, virtually every activity creates a digital trace—more raw material for the data distilleries. As devices from watches to cars connect to the internet, the volume is increasing: some estimate that a self-driving car will generate 100 gigabytes per second. Meanwhile, artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques such as machine learning extract more value from data. Algorithms can predict when a customer is ready to buy, a jet-engine needs servicing or a person is at risk of a disease. Industrial giants such as ge and Siemens now sell themselves as data firms.
This abundance of data changes the nature of competition.
Technology giants have always benefited from network effects: the more users Facebook signs up, the more attractive signing up becomes for others. With data there are extra network effects. By collecting more data, a firm has more
scope to improve its products, which attracts more users, generating even more data, and so on.
E a 6.
8. Demography
The rise of childlessness
Pocket living has been building and selling small flats in London since 2005. The flats have many of the things that young, single people want, such as bicycle storage, and lack the things they do not, such as large kitchens and lots of bookshelves. At first, Pocket expected that most buyers would be in their late 20s, says Marc Vlessing, the firm’s boss. Instead the average age is 32, and rising. It is not that many buyers are yet to have children, speculates Mr Vlessing; rather, they probably will never have them.
A growing number of city-dwelling Europeans are in the same situation. Just 9% of English and Welsh women born in 1946 had no children. For the cohort born in 1970— who, barring a few late surprises, can be assumed to be done with babies—the proportion is 17%. In Germany 22% of women reach their early 40s without children; in Hamburg 32% do.
All of which might seem to suggest that Europe is bent on self-erasure. Childlessness is “a symptom of a feeble and terminally ill culture” that has lost touch with its heritage, according to Iben Thranholm, a conservative Danish journalist. The suggestion is misleading, however. Mass childlessness is not a sign of demographic collapse, nor is it remotely novel. It would be more accurate to say that rich countries are updating a long tradition.
In some European countries, such as Germany and Italy, the overall birth rate is low and childlessness is common. But other countries, such as Britain and Ireland, combine a high birth rate (by European standards) with a high rate of childlessness. And in still other countries, especially formerly communist ones in eastern Europe, childlessness is rare but birth rates are low, because many women have one child. Overall, there is surprisingly little correlation between childlessness and fertility (see chart 1). Many countries that have lots of childless women today had even higher rates in the early 20th century. Indeed, the baby-filled late 20th century looks like a blip (see chart 2). That reflects deep-rooted social norms.
In pre-industrial western Europe, men and women did not marry while they were maids or apprentices, but only when they could set up households of their own. To stay unmarried and childless was a sign of economic failure. But it was not shameful in itself. “It is poverty only which makes celibacy contemptible,” explained the heroine of Jane Austen’s novel, “Emma”.

69 anos da DUDH

Estava-se a 10 de dezembro de 1948, três anos depois do fim da 2a Guerra Mundial. E os representantes de diferentes origens jurídicas e culturais de todas as regiões do mundo, reunidos em assembleia da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), em Paris, promulgaram a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos.

Segundo o Guiness Book of Records, a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos é o documento mais traduzido no mundo (403 idiomas, em 2012).

A Declaração abre com a afirmação solene de que “Todos os seres humanos nascem livres e iguais em dignidade e em direitos. Dotados de razão e de consciência, devem agir uns para com os outros em espírito de fraternidade. ” (artigo I). Reconheceu-se o princípio da igualdade essencial de todo o ser humano na sua dignidade, sem distinções de raça, cor, sexo, língua, religião, opinião, origem nacional ou social, riqueza, nascimento, ou qualquer outra condição, como se afirma no art. II da Declaração.

A DUDH tem 30 artigos, muitos deles ainda por cumprir, mas, na verdade, a Declaração baliza, afirma, atribui, valores e princípios que consideramos relevantes. 69 anos depois, em plena atualidade.

 

Seminário de Encerramento do Ciclo de debates: “Decidir sobre o Final da Vida”

O Ciclo de Debates «Decidir no final da vida”, organizado pelo Conselho Nacional de Ética para as Ciências da Vida (CNECV) com o Alto Patrocínio do Presidente da República, encerra-se, em Lisboa, no próximo dia 5 de dezembro, das 10h30 às 17h30, na Fundação Champalimaud.

RECAPITULANDO, este ciclo de debates começou em Lisboa, dia 22 de maio, 

5 de junho, Porto,

20 de junho, Braga,

4 de julho, Vila Real,

18 de julho, Aveiro

12 de setembro, Covilhã,

26 de setembro, Ponta Delgada,

10 outubro, Évora,

27 de outubro, Setúbal,

7 de novembro, Coimbra,

20 de novembro, Funchal.

Em cada debate estiveram grupos e perspetivas diferentes, encerrando-se com um Seminário com participações internacionais.

Estudo “Your post is embarassing me: Face threats, identity and the audience on Facebook”

Abstract

While Facebook is a popular venue for sharing information about ourselves, it also allows others to share information about us, which can lead to embarrassment. This study investigates the effects of shared face-threatening information on emotional and nonverbal indicators of embarrassment using an experiment (N ¼ 120) in which pairs of friends posted about each other on Facebook. Results show that face-threatening information shared by others produces a powerful emotional and nonverbal embarrassment response. However, it is not the content of the face-threatening post that produces this effect. Rather, the level of embarrassment depends primarily on whether that information violates the individual’s identity and if they perceive that unknown members of their audience can see it. In response, individuals were most likely to joke about the post, although those who were most embarrassed were more likely to delete it. These results inform our understanding of how the process of embarrassment works online. The emotional embarrassment response is similar to offline, but is affected by the features of these sites, such as a large, invisible audience, and the need for ideal self-presentation. This finding has important implications for treating online social networks and their effects to be as “real” as those offline.

……………

“Embarrassment is a short-lived emotional and psychological response to a discrepancy between one’s idealized role-identity and one’s presented role-identity (Singelis & Sharkey, 1995).

Edelmann (1985) mapped the process of social embarrassment across a wealth of data and models on the causes, experience, and responses to embarrassing experiences. First, the process starts with the assumption that individuals are aware of and trying to follow a particular set of social rules. As part of this effort, individuals attempt to manage others’ impressions of them via selective self-presentation of information about themselves (Schlenker, 1980). However, this self-presentation can be challenged by others (Higuchi & Fukada, 2008). Thus, the process of embarrassment is triggered when a disruption of social routine (e.g., a secret being revealed about the individual) creates an undesired impression of a person. These disruptions tend to fall into one of five categories of embarrassing events: awkward acts, violations of privacy, forgetfulness, criticism, and image appropriateness (Sharkey & Stafford, 1990). Next, an awareness of this discrepancy draws attention to the target. Being the center of attention is a key situation that individuals find embarrassing, along with committing a faux paus, and threatening another’s social identity (Sabini, Siepmann, Stein, & Meyerowitz, 2000). This attention highlights the threat to the target’s desired identity in relation to others, another key element of inducing embarrassment. Singelis and Sharkey (1995) note the role of self-construal in embarrassment, or one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions about the self as related to others. Those with higher interdependent self-construal show an increased susceptibility to embarrassment. Finally, the presence of an audience, real or imagined, makes the individual aware that this discrepancy in self-presentation is visible to others. Most models of embarrassment, while addressing various causes, assume that an audience is a necessary condition for embarrassment (Manstead & Semin, 1981; Modigliani, 1971; Sugawara, 1992). Robbins and Parlavecchio’s (2006) unwanted exposure model gets to the root of what makes any situation embarrassing: the revelation to an audience of something that one prefers to keep hidden. Embarrassment caused by others is particularly influenced by the perception of negative social evaluation (Withers & Sherblom, 2002), and by one’s relationship to the audience (Singelis & Sharkey, 1995). Onlookers may even experience vicarious embarrassment when witnessing threats to another’s social integrity (Müller-Pinzler, Rademacher, Paulus, & Krach, 2016). In response, the individual will experience a feeling of embarrassment, characterized by both emotional and nonverbal responses. Embarrassment is emotionally unique from other negative emotions, such as shame or guilt (Keltner & Buswell, 1997). Embarrassment is also characterized by specific nonverbal responses, such as decreased eye contact (Modigliani, 1971), increased smiling (Edelmann & Hampson, 1981), speech disturbances (Edelmann & Hampson, 1979) and laughter (Fink &Walker, 1977; Kreifelts et al., 2014; Sharkey & Stafford, 1990). Once embarrassed, an individual will engage in “facework,” or attempts to minimize the negative effects of the situation that caused embarrassment (Cupach & Metts, 1994), using a variety of protective and defensive communication strategies (Petronio, 1984). Response tactics include excuses, justifications, apologies, remediation, avoidance, aggression, mitigation, correction, and humor (Cho & Sillars, 2015; Fink & Walker, 1977; Metts & Cupach, 1989).”

2.1. Embarrassment on Facebook
Edelmann’s (1985) proposed process may play out similarly on Facebook. The effects of embarrassment on Facebook, however, may be exacerbated by the features it provides for self-presentation and content sharing. Individuals work to manage favorable impressions on Facebook as well as offline, engaging in selective selfpresentation (Walther, 2007) by controlling what information is displayed to whom (Child, Duck, Andrews, Butauski, & Petronio, 2015; Christofides, Muise, & Desmarais, 2009).

…….

5. Discussion
The results of this study advance our understanding of how individuals react emotionally and non verbally to face-threatening posts made by their friends on Facebook. Face-threatening posts triggered a strong embarrassment effect, regardless of the specific content or the type of face threat. Two key factors drove embarrassment. The first was whether the post was inconsistent with the participant’s sense of identity. The more a post diverged from a target’s identity the more embarrassing the post, and the stronger the emotional and nonverbal response to the post. The second was the nature of the audience, though not in terms of overall diversity. Embarrassment was not affected by how many different types of people participants thought could see the post, but instead was influenced by whether the participant thought the post was visible to an unknown audience. These results suggest that the primary concerns for an individual who has just been embarrassed by a friend on the site is whether an audience that does not know them well will see an unrepresentative account of their identity. Embarrassment on Facebook is driven by the quasi-public threat to one’s identity, rather than the revelation of any particular information.

……..

Conclusion

The results of this experiment show that something as simple as a Facebook post by a friend can produce strong emotional and nonverbal responses. This effect holds true no matter what information is revealed, indicating it is not what is shared, but whether anything unwanted is shared at all. Overall, the process of embarrassment largely matches what is seen in face-to-face settings, while certain elements, such as an unknown audience, may even magnify the outcome. This suggests that we must not treat these environments, their content, or their audience as though they are not “real,” given that their emotional influence is very real.

Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch, Jeremy Birnholtz, Jeffrey T. Hancock. «Your post is embarrassing me: Face threats, identity, and the audience on Facebook.» Computers in Human Behavior 73 (2017) 92e99

 

RIP Pedro Rollo Duarte

Pedro Rollo Duarte morreu. Um facto que me fez voltar ao seu blogue, reencontrar a escrita.  Deixo uns longos excertos de «Não me gritem»

Os estudos poderiam querer enganar-nos, mas a realidade ainda somos nós quem a faz todos os dias. E certamente todos os dias há menos um espectador clássico de televisão, e no seu lugar nasce o programador da sua própria emissão, vista na plataforma que entende, às horas que quer, e como quer. Os estudos reconhecem-no, por piores que estas noticias sejam para os seus principais utilizadores, que constitui toda a gama de intermediários que nasce no produtor e acaba no consumidor. Nunca como hoje fomos tão donos das nossas escolhas – com dinheiro, sem dinheiro, em espaço público ou privado – o que deve dar dores de cabeça a quem tem por obrigação vender-nos “coisas” em massa. Costumo dizer que o único lugar onde ainda me apanham a ver publicidade num ecrã é mesmo nas Caixas Multibanco, porque sou forçado a esperar pelas instruções do bonequinho…

Ainda assim, deve haver uns “chatos” profissionais cuja missão consiste em atazanar a cabeça dos publicitários, dos compradores de espaço, dos negociadores dos canais de TV, e que ainda não perceberam quão prejudicial pode ser a publicidade martelada para quem só aguarda pacientemente pelo bloco de notícias seguinte.

Falo por mim. Escolho os raros programas que me interessam nas TV’s generalistas e de cabo, e opto por gravar e ver mais tarde, ou agarrar-me ao comando a puxar “a fita” para trás (tão anos 80, não é?). (…)

O resultado é trágico: além de desligar o som quando sou apanhado na curva por um bloco publicitário de longuíssimos minutos, tenho um top de marcas e produtos que, de tantas vezes me chamarem atrasado mental, martelando na mesma mensagem e no mesmo discurso, como se tivesse cinco anos, estão riscados da lista de potencial cliente, mesmo que “de borla”.  (…) Este conjunto pequeno daquilo a que chamo “marcas-melga” está a afastar-nos até dos produtos de que potencialmente seríamos compradores e a que ainda nos prendia alguma publicidade: a imaginação, a criatividade, a surpresa, o momento bem escolhido para entrar “no ar”. No desespero de vender um pouco mais pela insistência, pela martelada, pela falsa ideia de que somos moscas atrás do néon iluminado, causa repulsa e só consegue incomodar.

Nos (escassos) casos contrários, uma marca consegue criar empatia até com aqueles que a podem dispensar, por fazer efectivamente parte dos seus dias. Recordo agora – e é recente – a campanha que assinalou os 90 anos da cerveja Superbock. Os filmes históricos. Os vídeos virais. As edições com receitas antigas. As garrafas e os rótulos. Sem incomodar em demasia. Escolhendo os espaços e horários adequados. É um excelente exemplo para responder a esta espécie de esquizofrenia que tomou conta dos bocadinhos em que ainda “nos apanham” a ver televisão. Ninguém quer pensar nisto? Ou preferem continuar a perder tempo a dizer que os media estão perdidos e, nestas circunstancias, o melhor é assobiar para o ar e subir o volume do som quando gritamos, como a Mafaldinha, “não me gritem!”.

A crónica de Miguel Esteves Cardoso 

A tua palavra, aquela que aparece quando penso em ti e que, como vês, já não me dou ao trabalho de disfarçar, é muito; a tua palavra é muita, Pedro. Sempre pusemos as palavras a trabalhar, a ver se fazem o favor de aproximar-se daquilo que os nossos corações dizem quando doem de memórias, de esperança, de riso e de amizade. Traduzam, porra!

Isso não vai acontecer, pois não? Fica-te com estas, quentes e boas, ao contrário das castanhas geladas e más que não interessam a ninguém. Considera-te surpreendido, velho amigo. Foste apanhado. Diz qualquer coisa, sacana.

Ou, no texto Parem de morrer, por favor, de António Esteves,

As pessoas morrem-nos todos os dias e com elas morre um pouco de nós. Que nos acorde a urgência de vivermos e cumprirmos as nossas pequenas promessas. A de cumprirmos os rituais simples da amizade será uma das mais prioritárias.

RIP

Dia das Bruxas… Halloween

20171031_174051.jpg

O costume alastrou – desde o festival celta de Samhain (que assinalava o fim do Verão), o Dia das Bruxas que conhecemos hoje terá tomado forma entre 1500 e 1800. Dele encontrei sinais em muitos países, ao longo dos anos (e sem serem os Estados Unidos). A fotografia acima é de hoje, da abóbora sobre um balcão de hotel, com cenário de morcegos ao fundo, num dos países bálticos.

Em Portugal, a minha memória era mais do “Pão-por-Deus”. Mas não restam dúvidas que o Halloween, do tempo dos celtas aos nossos dias, se espalhou. Potenciais da globalização…